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Ottawa, ON
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Beautiful Butterflies in Your Garden

Some varieties of flowers which are easy to find and grow in this area, and will be attractive to many
species of butterflies include:
Aster, Black-eyed Susan, Butterfly Weed, Coreopsis, Daylilies, Goldenrod, Hibiscus, Lavender,
Lilac, Marigold, Butterfly Bush, Ox-eye Daisy, Purple Coneflower, Redbud, Rosemary,
Verbena and Lungwort

Other Attractants

Another way to attract adult butterflies to your yard is to offer places (food plants) for females to lay their
eggs. Some females are pickier about which host to lay their eggs on than others. A few specific
examples host plants are listed at the end of this article.

The larvae can also be very noteworthy. Some caterpillars have hairs or forked spines, which may be or
may not sting (often the hairs are just for show). It's better to be safe than sorry, so wear gloves when
handling these larvae. Certain swallowtail caterpillars imitate snakes or bird droppings. Other caterpillars, like sulphers, are camouflaged, or blend into their surroundings very well. If caterpillars are eating excessive foliage from a prominent or desirable part of a plant, try moving them (with gloves on if they're hairy) to the backside or another less noticeable portion of the plant.
All insects are cold-blooded and cannot internally regulate their body temperature. Butterflies will readily bask in the sun when it is warm out, but few are seen on cloudy days. It is a good idea to leave open areas in a yard for butterflies to sun themselves, as well as partly shady areas like trees or shrubs, so they can hide when it's cloudy or cool off if it is very hot.

Butterflies also like puddles. Males of several species congregate at small rain pools, forming puddle clubs. Permanent puddles are very easy to make by burying a bucket to the rim, filling it with gravel or sand, and then pouring in liquids such as stale beer, sweet drinks or water. Overripe fruit, allowed to sit for a few days is a very attractive snack (for ithem!) as well.

Butterfly Anatomy

Adult butterflies and moths have mouth parts shaped into a long, coiled tube. Forcing blood into the tube straightens it out, allowing butterflies to feed on liquids. Butterflies get all their food from this tube, which limits them to nectar and standing water. Larvae, on the other hand, have chewing mouth parts which they use to skeletonize or totally defoliate leaves. Butterflies have large, rounded compound eyes which allows them to see in all directions without turning their head. Like most insects, butterflies are very nearsighted, and are more attracted to large stands of a particular flower than those planted singly. They do not see "red" as well as we do, but they can see polarized light (which tells the direction the sun is pointing) as well as ultraviolet light, which is present on many flowers and guides them to nectar sources. Butterflies also have a very well-developed sense of smell from their antennae. All butterflies' antennae are club-shaped, as opposed to moths, which can be many shapes but often are feathery.

Butterflies begin their life as an egg, laid either singly or in clusters depending on the species. A very tiny caterpillar emerges and, after consuming its egg shell, begins feeding on its host plant. Caterpillars must crawl out of their skin or molt, usually around five times, before changing into a pupa. Finally, an adult butterfly emerges, spreads its wings and flies away. This type of development is complete metamorphosis.

Butterfly gardens are a great source for your own enjoyment, photo opportunities, or an outlet for artistic talent. These gardens can also be extended to interest youth in nature, by providing a small window of native inhabitants of the local environment. On a final note, it's important to conserve butterflies when possible since their habitat is constantly diminishing due to the increasing needs and consequent development of roads and housing.

Nectar Sources for Butterflies - During Spring

Dandelion Taraxacum officinale   
Blueberries Vaccinium spp.
Blackberries, Dewberries Rubus spp.
Wild Plums, Wild Cherries Prunus spp.
Red Clover Trifolium pratense
Redbud Cercis canadenis
Blue Flag  Iris versicolor
Wild Strawberry Fragaria virginiana

Nectar Sources for Butterflies - During Summer

Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca
Orange (Butterfly) Milkweed Asclepias tuberosa
Swamp Wilkweed Asclepias incarnata
Dogbanes Apocynum spp.
Sumacs Rhus spp.
Coneflowers Echinacea spp.
Thistles Cirsium spp.
Vervains Verbena spp.
Bergamots Monarda spp.
French Marigold Tagetes patula
Butterfly Bush Buddleia spp.

Nectar Sources for Butterflies - During Fall

Asters Aster spp.
Joe-pye Weeds Eupatorium spp.
Goldenrods Solidago spp.
Gayfeather Liatris spp.
Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria

Caterpillar Host Plants for widespread Butterflies

Asters (Aster) Pearl Crescent
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Black Swallowtail
Hackberries (Celtis) Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, Question Mark
Mallows / Hollyhocks, Gray Hairstreak, Common Checkered-Skipper
Milkweeds (Asclepias) Monarch, Queen
Parsley (Petroselinum) Black Swallowtail
Passion-vines (Passiflora) Gulf Fritillary, Variegated Fritillary
Dutchman’s Pipe Vines (Asistolochia) Pipevine Swallowtail, Polydamas Swallowtail
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum major) Common Buckeye
Sunflowers (Helianthus) Silvery Checkerspot, Gorgone Checkerspot
Turtlehead (Chelone glabra) Baltimore Cherspot


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